The scientific community is relentlessly working to fight SARS‑CoV‑2. Miltenyi Biotec stands committed to assisting those researchers in getting on top of COVID-19.
SARS-CoV-2 PepTivator Peptide Pools can be used to load antigen-presenting cells and to stimulate SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells. The T cells can then be detected and/or isolated for further research, including analysis of T cell immunity after vaccination or monitoring the immune status after infection. We provide different peptide pools covering specified proteins parts of wild-type and mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Overview of SARS‑CoV‑2 PepTivator Peptide Pools
|SARS-CoV-2 lineage||Protein||Sequence part||Quality grade||Product name|
|Wild-type variant||Whole proteome (structural and non-structural proteins)||Immunodominant sequences||Premium grade & MACS GMP||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Select|
|Spike protein||Predicted immunodominant sequences||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S|
|Complete N-terminal S1 domain||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S1|
|Parts of the C-terminal S2 domain||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S+|
|Complete sequence of the mature protein||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S Complete|
|Nucleoprotein||Complete sequence||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_N|
|Membrane protein||Complete sequence||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_M|
|Mutated variants||AY.1 (Delta plus) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S AY.1|
|B.1.1.7. (Alpha) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.1.7|
|B.1.1.7. (Alpha) nucleoprotein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_N B.1.1.7|
|B.1.351 (Beta) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.351|
|B.1.427/B.1.429 (Epsilon) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.427/B.1.429|
|B.1.525 (Eta) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.525|
|B.1.617.1 (Kappa) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.617.1|
|B.1.617.2 (Delta) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 |
|P.1 (Gamma) spike protein||Mutated regions (and WT reference)||Research grade||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S P.1|
Our PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Select covers selected immunodominant epitopes of the whole SARS-CoV-2 proteome. The peptides originate from structural proteins (spike protein, membrane protein, nucleoprotein, and envelope protein) as well as non-structural proteins. The included MHC class I– and MHC class II–restricted peptides have a length between 9–22 aa and enable the stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Select is available in two quality grades:
Premium grade, being perfectly suited for your translational and basic research with a size of 6 nmol/peptide and an overall peptide purity of >80%. The product is manufactured and tested under a quality management system (ISO 9001).
MACS GMP, supporting your clinical research with a size of 60 nmol/peptide and an overall peptide purity of >90%. The sterile-bottled product (tested according to Ph. Eur.) is manufactured and tested under a quality management system (ISO 13485) and in compliance with relevant GMP guidelines. Designed following the recommendations of USP <1043> on ancillary materials.
Find out more about our MACS GMP PepTivator Peptide Pools and their application here.
PepTivator Peptide Pools consist of mainly of 15-mer peptides with 11-amino-acid overlaps, covering the amino acid sequence of a particular antigen. They bind to MHC class I as well as MHC class II complexes and thus are suitable for the antigen-specific stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Products containing 6 nmol per peptide are sufficient to stimulate up to 10⁸ cells and products containing 60 nmol per peptide are sufficient to stimulate up to 10⁹ cells.
Our SARS-CoV-2 PepTivator Peptide pools are available in both sizes (6 nmol and 60 nmol per peptide per vial) in research-grade quality. With a broad product selection covering main structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins and an average purity of 70%, they are the perfect choice for your basic research, e.g., to monitor the immune response after natural infections or upon vaccination.
The surface or spike glycoprotein (S) plays a critical role in coronavirus infection as it is crucial for recognition and fusion of the virus with the host cell membrane. Two different functional domains of the S protein are responsible for these individual processes: The S1 domain contains the surface binding site to the host cell receptor, the ACE2 receptor, whereas membrane fusion is mediated via the S2 domain. Furthermore, cleavage at the boundary of the S1 and S2 domains (aa residues 685 and 686) via cellular proteases primes the protein for entry into the host cell. Upon fusion of the viral envelope and the host cell membrane, the viral genome enters the host cell and viral replication starts.
Since the beginning of the pandemic, the S protein and especially the S1 domain have been considered a potential key target for vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic approaches. In fact, thanks to the relentless work of the scientific community, several vaccines based on the spike protein are available today and more are under development.
To achieve a complete sequence coverage, you can either combine the three PepTivator Peptide Pools (SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S, Prot_S1 and Prot_S+) or choose PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S Complete as a convenient all-in-one solution.
Prot_N stands for nucleoprotein (N), also known as nucleocapsid protein. The N protein has multiple functions in the coronavirus replication cycle. Its primary function is viral genome packaging. Furthermore, it is involved in virus transcription and interacts with the viral membrane during virion assembly.
The N protein has been suggested as a possible target for vaccine development (PMID: 32106567).
The PepTivator SARS‑CoV‑2 Prot_N covers the complete sequence of the SARS‑CoV‑2 N protein (GenBank MN908947.3, Protein QHD43423.2).
Prot_M stands for membrane glycoprotein (M). The M protein is the most abundant structural protein in the coronavirus envelope and thus defines viral morphogenesis. Additionally, the M protein is crucial for efficient virion assembly and involved in viral budding.
The M protein has been suggested as a possible target for vaccine development (PMID: 16423399).
The PepTivator SARS‑CoV‑2 Prot_M covers the complete sequence of the SARS‑CoV‑2 M protein (GenBank MN908947.3, Protein QHD43419.1).
A more detailed analysis of the stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is shown in "exemplary application data" and more examples for the application of SARS-CoV-2 PepTivator Peptide Pools can be found under "references".
Following ordinary viral evolution, SARS-CoV-2 accumulates mutations over time, leading to new virus variants. With the B.1.1.7 lineage (Alpha variant) and the B.1.351 lineage (Beta variant), it was first reported that mutations have affected immune relevant parts of structural virus proteins. New SARS-CoV-2 lineages are in the spotlight of COVID-19 research as they are able to evade pre-existing antibody responses and appear to be more infectious than the Wuhan wild-type variant.
We offer PepTivator Peptide Pools covering the mutated sequences of the structural proteins of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants (mutation pools). They can be used to supplement PepTivator Peptide Pools based on the Wuhan variant (PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S, Prot_S1, Prot_S+, Prot_S Complete, Prot_N, or Select) to ensure that the immune response towards different virus lineages is detected upon stimulation. Besides the mutation pools, we also offer the respective WT reference pools, including the homologous peptides of the Wuhan variant (WT) without mutation. Thus, comparison of the T cell immune response upon stimulation with the mutation versus reference pools can be used to detect mutation-specific T cell responses.
We continuously extend our product portfolio as new virus strains arise. The table below gives an overview of available PepTivator Mutation and WT Reference Pools. The products are available in research grade with a size of 6 nmol/peptide.
Overview of SARS‑CoV‑2 PepTivator Peptide Pools covering mutated virus variants
|SARS-CoV-2 lineage||Database reference sequence (GISAID)||Protein||Mutations and deletions||Number of peptides||Product names|
Delta plus variant,
|44||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S AY.1 Mutation Pool |
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S AY.1 WT Reference Pool
VUI202012/01, or VOC202012/01
|EPI_ISL_756151||Spike protein||del 69|
|34||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.1.7 Mutation Pool|
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.1.7 WT Reference Pool
VUI202012/01, or VOC202012/01
|9||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_N B.1.1.7 Mutation Pool|
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_N B.1.1.7 WT Reference Pool
South Africa variant, 501Y.V2, or VOC-202012/02
|30||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.351 Mutation Pool|
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.351 WT Reference Pool
California variant, CAL.20C, or GH/452R.V1
|EPI_ ISL_648527||Spike protein||S13I|
|16||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.427/B.1.429 Mutation Pool|
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.427/B.1.429 WT Reference Pool
Variant G/484K.V3, or VUI-202102/03
|28||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.525 Mutation Pool|
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.525 WT Reference Pool
G/452R.V3, “double mutant” (E484Q+L452R) or VUI-21APR-01
|EPI_ISL_1719097||Spike protein||T95I |
|30||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 |
Prot_S B.1.617.1 Mutation Pool
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.617.1 WT Reference Pool
G/452R.V3, “double mutant” (T478K+L452R) or VUI-21APR-02
|EPI_ISL_1718882||Spike protein||T19R |
|32||PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 |
Prot_S B.1.617.2 Mutation Pool
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S B.1.617.2 WT Reference Pool
20J/501Y.V3, or VOC-202101/02
|EPI ISL_792682||Spike protein||L18F|
|PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S P.1 Mutation Pool|
PepTivator SARS-CoV-2 Prot_S P.1 WT Reference Pool
Human T cell immunity – CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response
Human CD4+ T cell response
Human CD8+ T cell response
Animal models, immunization and vaccination research
Mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants
Find detailed information on our complete workflow for stimulation, enrichment and analysis of virus-reactive T cells here.