Human IL-21

Human IL-21

Recombinant human IL-21 (interleukin 21) can promote Th17 or Tfh differentiation of T cells, expansion of CD8+ T cells, as well as B and NK cell development. Thus, the pleiotropic cytokine regulates several aspects of lymphoid cell function and has central roles for humoral immunity. IL-21 has been associated with allergies, cancer, and viral infections. Recombinant protein human IL-21 was developed for use in various applications, such as cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays.

Applications

Human IL-21 can be used for a variety of applications, including:
  • In vitro differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells towards TH 17 cells and TFH .
  • In vitro expansion of CD8+ T cells and enhancement of cytotoxic T cell function.
  • Study of NK cell development and function.
  • In vitro differentiation of plasma cells from naive B cells.
  • Investigation of IL-21–mediated molecular signaling pathways.

Background information

Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a four α-helix bundle cytokine and closely related to IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15. IL-21 expression is restricted to activated CD4
+
T helper cells and NKT cells. Among T helper subsets, IL-21 is strongly produced by follicular T helper cells and T
H
17 cells, where IL-21 serves as an autocrine regulator and seems to sustain T
H
17 development. The functional receptor for IL-21, composed of the IL-21 receptor- and the common γ-chain, is expressed on various hematopoietic cells including T, B, NK, and dendritic cells. Accordingly, IL-21 exerts pleiotropic effects on both cellular and humoral immune responses, such as stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation, promotion of CD8
+
T cell and NK cell cytotoxicity, and differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Important roles for IL-21 have been proposed with regard to its anti-tumor activity and for the development of autoimmune diseases.

Quality description

Research-grade
cytokines are suitable for a wide variety of cell culture applications. They are sterile-filtered prior to lyophilization. Generally, endotoxin levels are <0.1 ng/μg (<1 EU/μg), and purities are >95%. The biological activity is tested in appropriate bioassays.
Premium-grade
cytokines offer the convenience of high and well-defined biological activities and allow exact unit dosing for demanding applications. The biological activity is determined after lyophilization and reconstitution, and normalized to WHO/NIBSC standards whenever available. In general, endotoxin levels are <0.01 ng/μg (<0.1 EU/μg), and purities are >97%. Lot-specific certificates of analysis are available on request (macstec@miltenyibiotec.de).

Biological activity

  • Proliferation of B9 hybridoma cells
  • premium grade: ≥ 2×
    10
    4
    U/mg
    (typical activity: ≥ 3×
    10
    4
    U/mg
    )
  • research grade: ≥ 1×
    10
    4
    U/mg
  • Selected references

    1. Jabara, H. H. et al. (2012) DOCK8 functions as an adaptor that links TLR-MyD88 signaling to B cell activation. Nat. Immunol. 13(6): 612-620
    2. Fuchs, S. et al. (2014)
      Patients with T
      +/low
      NK
      +
      IL-2 receptor γ chain deficiency have differentially-impaired cytokine signaling resulting in severe combined immunodeficiency.
      Eur. J. Immunol. 44(10): 3129-3140
    3. Spolski, R. and Leonard, W. J. (2008) Interleukin-21: basic biology and implications for cancer and autoimmunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 26: 57-79
    4. Nielsen, N. et al. (2012) Cytotoxicity of CD56(bright) NK cells towards autologous activated CD4+ T cells is mediated through NKG2D, LFA-1 and TRAIL and dampened via CD94/NKG2A. PLoS One 7(2): e31959
  • Certificates

    Please follow this
    link
    to search for Certificates of Analysis (CoA) by lot number.
Product options: 5
E. coli
10 µg
USD 205.00
E. coli
25 µg
USD 385.00
E. coli
10 µg
USD 245.00
E. coli
25 µg
USD 490.00
E. coli
100 µg
USD 1,175.00

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