Human GM-CSF

Human GM-CSF

Recombinant human GM-CSF induces the differentiation of granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. The hematopoietic cytokine is a crucial part of the immune/inflammatory path and serves as both a survival and activation signal for mature myeloid cells. The recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been developed for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays.


Human GM-CSF can be used for a variety of applications including:
  • Cultivation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from human bone marrow in semi-solid medium.
  • In vitro generation of Mo-DCs together with Human IL-4.
  • In vitro differentiation of CD34+ cells towards eosinophils.
  • Migration assays for eosinophils.

Alternative names


Background information

GM-CSF is a hematopoietic growth factor, which is essential for proliferation and development of granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage progenitors. It also functions as a growth factor for erythroid and megakaryocytic precursor cells in conjunction with erythropoietin. GM-CSF is secreted by various cell types including T cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts in response to inflammatory stimuli and cytokines. In addition, GM-CSF is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils and eosinophils and enhances the effector functions of neutrophils and macrophages.

Quality description

cytokines are suitable for a wide variety of cell culture applications. They are sterile-filtered prior to lyophilization. Generally, endotoxin levels are <0.1 ng/μg (<1 EU/μg), and purities are >95%. The biological activity is tested in appropriate bioassays.
cytokines offer the convenience of high and well-defined biological activities and allow exact unit dosing for demanding applications. The biological activity is determined after lyophilization and reconstitution, and normalized to WHO/NIBSC standards whenever available. In general, endotoxin levels are <0.01 ng/μg (<0.1 EU/μg), and purities are >97%. Lot-specific certificates of analysis are available on request (

Biological activity

  • Proliferation of TF-1 cells (NIBSC 88/646)
  • premium grade: ≥ 5×
    (typical activity: ≥ 1.2×
  • research grade: ≥ 2×
  • Selected references

    1. Kaebisch R. et al. (2014) Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A impairs human dendritic cell maturation and function through IL-10-mediated activation of STAT3. J. Immunol. 192: 316-323
    2. Ulfman, L. H. et al. (2008)
      Homeostatic intracellular-free Ca
      is permissive for Pap1-mediated constitutive activation of α
      integrins on eosinophils.
      J. Immunol. 180: 5512-5519
    3. Laurenti, E. et al. (2015) CDK6 levels regulate quiescence exit in human hematopoietic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 16(3): 302-313
    4. Guery L. et al. (2014) Fine-tuning nucleophosmin in macrophage differentiation and activation. Blood 118: 4694-4704
    5. Koning F. A. et al. (2009) Defining APOBEC3 expression patterns in human tissues and hematopoietic cell subsets. J. Virol. 83: 9474-9485
    6. Kitamura, T. et al. (1989) Establishment and characterization of a unique human cell line that proliferates dependently on GM-CSF, IL-3, or erythropoietin. J. Cell. Physiol. 140: 323-334
    7. Dighe N. et al. (2014) Long-term reproducible expression in human fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells with a UCOE-based lentiviral vector. PLoS One 9(8): e104805
    8. Chase A. J. et al. (2011)
      Impairment of CD4
      T cell polarization by dengue virus-infected dendritic cells.
      J. Infect. Dis. 203: 1763-1774
    9. Brault, J. et al. (2014)
      Optimized generation of functional neutrophils and macrophages from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells:
      ex vivo
      models of X
      -linked, AR22
      - and AR47
      - chronic granulomatous diseases.
      Biores Open Access 3(6): 311-326
    10. Bacher, P. et al. (2014) Antigen-specific expansion of human regulatory T cells as a major tolerance mechanism against mucosal fungi. Mucosal Immunol 7(4): 916-928
  • Customer reports and application notes

  • Certificates

    Please follow this
    to search for Certificates of Analysis (CoA) by lot number.
Product options: 7
E. coli
10 µg
USD 145.00
E. coli
50 µg
USD 310.00
E. coli
10 µg
USD 175.00
E. coli
50 µg
USD 380.00
E. coli
100 µg
USD 730.00
E. coli
500 µg
USD 2,055.00
E. coli
1000 µg
USD 3,390.00

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