From infection until patient recovery during a viral infection, both innate and adaptive immune cells play an important role.
Extensive flow cytometry–based characterization of immune cell subsets during viral disease pathogenesis has been done during the previous CoV infection (as reviewed in Prompetchara E. et al. 2020). Currently, very limited information is available on the host innate immune status of SARS‐CoV‐2‐infected patients (Cossarizza A. et al. 2020).
Deep characterization of immune cells to monitor disease pathogenesis as well as efficacy of antiviral therapy is crucial. Miltenyi Biotec provides the largest recombinant antibody portfolio for flow cytometry–based characterization of immune cells.
Several recent articles (PMID: 32203188; 32203186) have described multicolor flow cytometry analysis to characterize immune repertoire during the course of a COVID 19 infection. The most commonly used markers are listed below.
Using REAfinity™ Recombinant Antibodies can enhance reproducibility and standardization of your immunophenotyping.
|Immunophenotyping category||Specific markers|
|Cell subset||T cell||B cell||NK cell||Antigen presenting cell |
|CD3, CD4, CD8, CD27||CD19, CD20, IgA, IgM,||CD56, CD16||CD14, CD11c, CD16|
|Naïve and memory marker||CD45RA, CD45RO, CD62L|
|Transcription factor||Tbet, FoxP3, RORγt, Stat1, Stat5 , Stat6, IRF4, TOX|
|Intracellular cytokine||IFNγ, TNFα IL2, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-10, TGF-b, IL-6, IL-12, IL-21, GM-CSF|
|Activation/Exhaustion marker||CD25, CD69, CD38, HLA-DR, PD-1, CD28, CD57, CCR7, CD127, CD95, CD107a, 41BB, CD40L, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM3, LAG3, NKG2A, KLRG1, CD137, CD86, CD80, CD244 (2B4)|
|Cytoplasmic granule||Granzyme A, Granzyme B, Perforin|
|Cell signaling protein||STAT, ERK, NFkB Check our cell signalling antibodies|
|Proliferation marker||Ki67, PCNA, Bcl-6|
|Adhesion molecule||CD11a, CD58, CD99|
|Migration molecule||CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CXCR3, CXCR4, CD197, CXCR5, CCR10|
|SARS-CoV2 reactive protein||Neuropilin-1|
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