Recombinant antibodies for immunophenotyping during COVID-19 research

Recombinant antibodies for immunophenotyping during COVID-19 research

From infection until patient recovery during a viral infection, both innate and adaptive immune cells play an important role. 

Extensive flow cytometry–based characterization of immune cell subsets during viral disease pathogenesis has been done during the previous CoV infection (as reviewed in Prompetchara E. et al. 2020). Currently, very limited information is available on the host innate immune status of SARS‐CoV‐2‐infected patients (Cossarizza A. et al. 2020). 

Deep characterization of immune cells to monitor disease pathogenesis as well as efficacy of antiviral therapy is crucial. Miltenyi Biotec provides the largest recombinant antibody portfolio for flow cytometry–based characterization of immune cells.

Antibodies for immuno-monitoring by flow cytometry

Several recent articles (PMID:  32203188; 32203186) have described multicolor flow cytometry analysis to characterize immune repertoire during the course of a COVID 19 infection. The most commonly used markers are listed below. 

Using REAfinity™ Recombinant Antibodies can enhance reproducibility and standardization of your immunophenotyping. 

Immunophenotyping categorySpecific markers
Cell subsetT cellB cellNK cellAntigen presenting cell 
(DC, monocytes)
CD3, CD4, CD8, CD27  CD19, CD20, IgA, IgMCD56, CD16CD14, CD11c, CD16
Naïve and memory markerCD45RA, CD45RO, CD62L
Transcription factorTbet, FoxP3, RORγt, Stat1, Stat5 , Stat6, IRF4, TOX
Intracellular cytokineIFNγ, TNFα  IL2IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-10, TGF-b, IL-6, IL-12, IL-21, GM-CSF
Activation/Exhaustion markerCD25, CD69, CD38, HLA-DR, PD-1, CD28, CD57, CCR7, CD127, CD95, CD107a, 41BB, CD40L, CTLA-4, TIGIT, TIM3, LAG3, NKG2A, KLRG1, CD137, CD86, CD80, CD244 (2B4)
Cytoplasmic granuleGranzyme A, Granzyme B, Perforin
Cell signaling proteinSTAT, ERK, NFkB  Check our cell signalling antibodies
Proliferation markerKi67, PCNA, Bcl-6 
Adhesion moleculeCD11a, CD58, CD99
Migration moleculeCCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CXCR3, CXCR4, CD197, CXCR5, CCR10
SARS-CoV2 reactive proteinNeuropilin-1

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SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Analysis Kits

Convenient all-in-one SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Analysis Kits for the rapid analysis of human SARS-CoV-2-reative T cells by flow cytometry

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Antibodies validated for non-human primates

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Antibodies validated for non-human primates

This list highlights antibodies, such as lineage marker, receptors, secondary antibodies, and more that are cross-reactive to different NHP species

Publications using REAfinity Recombinant Antibodies in COVID-19 research

Read on how researcher trust on our REAfinity Recombinant Antibodies for immune cell characterization in COVID 19 infection.

  • Structural and Functional Basis of SARS-CoV-2 Entry by Using Human ACE2, Cell (PMID: 32275855)
  • Rapid production of clinical-grade SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells, Advances in Cell and Gene Therapy (PMID: 32838213)
  • Phenotype and kinetics of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, Science Immunology (PMID: 32591408)
  • Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment, Cell (PMID: 32810438)
  • Immunophenotyping of COVID-19 and influenza highlights the role of type I interferons in development of severe COVID-19, Science Immunology (PMID: 32651212)
  • SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19, Nature (PMID: 32726801)
  • Robust T cell immunity in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic or mild 
    COVID-19, Cell (

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Please contact us, so we can discuss your research needs.

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