What kind of positive control do you recommend for cytokine secretion assays (CSA)?

We recommend SEB (Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B) for human or mouse samples. Furthermore, CytoStim, human or CMV antigen (only possible with CMV-positive donors) can be used as a positive control for human samples. Mitogens like PHA or PMA/Ionomycin are not recommended for stimulation of the positive control because the resulting high frequencies of cytokine-secreting (e.g., IFNγ) cells do not allow drawing conclusions about the performance (e.g., sensitivity) of the CSA.