Human IL-21

Human IL-21

IL-21 stands for interleukin 21. Human IL-21 is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays.

Applications

Human IL-21 can be used for a variety of applications, including:
  • In vitro differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells towards TH 17 cells and TFH .
  • In vitro expansion of CD8+ T cells and enhancement of cytotoxic T cell function.
  • Study of NK cell development and function.
  • In vitro differentiation of plasma cells from naive B cells.
  • Investigation of IL-21–mediated molecular signaling pathways.

Background information

Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a four α-helix bundle cytokine and closely related to IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15. IL-21 expression is restricted to activated CD4
+
T helper cells and NKT cells. Among T helper subsets, IL-21 is strongly produced by follicular T helper cells and T
H
17 cells, where IL-21 serves as an autocrine regulator and seems to sustain T
H
17 development. The functional receptor for IL-21, composed of the IL-21 receptor- and the common γ-chain, is expressed on various hematopoietic cells including T, B, NK, and dendritic cells. Accordingly, IL-21 exerts pleiotropic effects on both cellular and humoral immune responses, such as stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation, promotion of CD8
+
T cell and NK cell cytotoxicity, and differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Important roles for IL-21 have been proposed with regard to its anti-tumor activity and for the development of autoimmune diseases.

Quality description

Research-grade
cytokines are suitable for a wide variety of cell culture applications. They are sterile-filtered prior to lyophilization. Generally, endotoxin levels are <0.1 ng/μg (<1 EU/μg), and purities are >95%. The biological activity is tested in appropriate bioassays.
Premium-grade
cytokines offer the convenience of high and well-defined biological activities and allow exact unit dosing for demanding applications. The biological activity is determined after lyophilization and reconstitution, and normalized to WHO/NIBSC standards whenever available. In general, endotoxin levels are <0.01 ng/μg (<0.1 EU/μg), and purities are >97%. Lot-specific certificates of analysis are available on request (macstec@miltenyibiotec.de).

Biological activity

  • Proliferation of B9 hybridoma cells
  • premium grade: ≥ 2×
    10
    4
    U/mg
    (typical activity: ≥ 3×
    10
    4
    U/mg
    )
  • research grade: ≥ 1×
    10
    4
    U/mg

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