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Data and images for Human IL-1β


Figure 1

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Human IL-1β activity assay.
The biological activity of Human IL-1β, premium grade is determined by proliferation assay using D10.G4.1 cells.

Figure 1

Human IL-1β activity assay.
The biological activity of Human IL-1β, premium grade is determined by proliferation assay using D10.G4.1 cells.

Figure 2

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SDS-PAGE of Human IL-1β, premium grade
under reduced (R) and non-reduced (NR) conditions.

Figure 2

SDS-PAGE of Human IL-1β, premium grade
under reduced (R) and non-reduced (NR) conditions.

Specifications for Human IL-1β


Recombinant human IL-1β (interleukin 1 beta) can be used for maturation of Mo-DCs and for differentiation within the lymphoid lineage, such as Th17 development and B cell proliferation. The proinflammatory cytokine is produced upon infection or injury and is involved in diverse cellular processes. Developed for cell culture, functional assays, and differentiation studies, the recombinant human IL-1β is ideal for use.


Human IL-1β can be used for a variety of applications including:
  • Induction of Mo-DC maturation.
  • Chemotaxis assays.
  • Investigation of IL-1 receptor signaling.

Alternative names


Detailed product information

Background information

Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is secreted mainly by monocytes and macrophages. IL-1β secretion has also been reported for a variety of other cells, including B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells. It mediates inflammatory responses in B cells, T cells, and NK cells by inducing the production of cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, as well as interferons. Upon exposure to IL-1β, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells synthesize prostaglandins and other derivatives of arachidonic acid. In addition, IL-1β is found in synovial fluid of arthritis patients, causing degranulation of basophils and eosinophils as well as activation of osteoclasts. IL-1β is mitogenic for mesangial cells, glial cells, and keratinocytes. It has been shown that IL-1β is a potent modulator of CD40L-induced cytokine secretion by human dendritic cell (DC) subsets, such as monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), CD34
-derived DCs, and peripheral blood DCs.

Biological activity

  • Proliferation of D10.G4.1 cells (NIBSC 86/680)
  • research grade: ≥ 1×
  • premium grade: ≥ 3×
  • We measure the biological activity of each batch of MACS Premium-Grade Cytokines and state the results in the Certificate of Analysis (CoA). Based on the lot-specific activity, exact doses of active cytokine can be applied to cell culture experiments. This allows for reproducible cell culture conditions without the need for time-consuming lot-to-lot testing.

Quality description

cytokines are suitable for a wide variety of cell culture applications. They are sterile-filtered prior to lyophilization. Generally, endotoxin levels are <0.1 ng/μg (<1 EU/μg), and purities are >95%. The biological activity is tested in appropriate bioassays.
cytokines offer the convenience of high and well-defined biological activities and allow exact unit dosing for demanding applications. The biological activity is determined after lyophilization and reconstitution, and normalized to WHO/NIBSC standards whenever available. In general, endotoxin levels are <0.01 ng/μg (<0.1 EU/μg), and purities are >97%. Lot-specific activities are stated in the Certificate of Analysis (www.

Resources for Human IL-1β

Documents and Protocols


Please follow this
to search for Certificates of Analysis (CoA) by lot number.

References for Human IL-1β


  1. Tomita, T. et al. (2015) Human serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) protein, expressed as a fusion protein with SAA2, binds the oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor. PLoS One 10(3): e0118835
  2. Stolk, M. et al. (2017) New insights into tenocyte-immune cell interplay in an in vitro model of inflammation. Sci Rep 7(1): 9801
  3. De Laere, M. et al. (2018) Shuttling Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells across the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vitro via the Introduction of De Novo C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Using Messenger RNA Electroporation. Front Immunol 8: 1964
  4. Kraus, A. U. et al. (2020) Monocytic Cytokines in Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2 Are Modulated by Vitamin D and HLA-DQ. Front Immunol 11: 583709
  5. Cantoni, C. et al. (2021) Stromal-like Wilms tumor cells induce human Natural Killer cell degranulation and display immunomodulatory properties towards NK cells. Oncoimmunology 10(1): 1879530
  6. Benitez-Ribas, D. et al. (2018) Immune Response Generated With the Administration of Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed With an Allogenic Tumoral Cell-Lines Lysate in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma. Front Oncol. 8: 127
  7. Ferroni, L. et al. (2020) Fluorescent Light Energy (FLE) Acts on Mitochondrial Physiology Improving Wound Healing. J Clin Med 9(2): 559
  8. Hübner, M. et al. (2020) MicroRNA-93 acts as an "anti-inflammatory tumor suppressor" in glioblastoma. Neurooncol Adv 2(1): vdaa047
  9. Beez, C. M. et al. (2019) Extracellular vesicles from regenerative human cardiac cells act as potent immune modulators by priming monocytes. J Nanobiotechnology 17(1): 72
  10. Poole, S. and Gaines-Das, R. E. (1991) The international standards for interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta. Evaluation in an international collaborative study. J. Immunol. Methods 142: 1-13
  11. Kitamura, T. et al. (1991) IL-1 up-regulates the expression of cytokine receptors on a factor-dependent human hemopoetic cell line, TF-1. Int. Immunol. 3: 571-577
  12. Luft, T. et al. (2002) IL-1β enhances CD40 ligand-mediated cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells (DC): a mechanism for T cell-independent DC activation. J. Immunol. 168: 713-722
  13. Cunin, P. et al. (2011) The tachykinins substance P and hemokinin-1 favor the generation of human memory Tʜ17 cells by inducing IL-1β, IL-23, and TNF-like 1A expression by monocytes. J. Immunol. 186(7): 4175-4182
  14. Dussiau, C. et al. (2015) Targeting IRAK1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Oncotarget. 6: 18956-18965
  15. Bacher, P. et al. (2014) Antigen-specific expansion of human regulatory T cells as a major tolerance mechanism against mucosal fungi. Mucosal Immunol 7(4): 916-928
  16. Schipper, H. S. et al. (2010) A multiplex immunoassay for human adipokine profiling. Clin. Chem. 56(8): 1320-1328

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