Recombinant human TGF-β1 is used for the cultivation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but can also promote Th17 and Treg differentiation of T cells. The transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 is associated with diverse processes including chondrogenesis, wound healing, embryogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis.

Data and images for Human TGF-β1

Figures

Figure 1

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SDS-PAGE of Human TGF-β1, premium grade
under reduced (R) and non-reduced (NR) conditions.

Figure 1

SDS-PAGE of Human TGF-β1, premium grade
under reduced (R) and non-reduced (NR) conditions.

Figure 2

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Mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of Human TGF-β1, premium grade. The peak corresponds to the calculated molecular mass of 25572 Da.

Figure 2

Mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of Human TGF-β1, premium grade. The peak corresponds to the calculated molecular mass of 25572 Da.

Specifications for Human TGF-β1

Overview

Recombinant human TGF-β1 is used for the cultivation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but can also promote Th17 and Treg differentiation of T cells. The transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 is associated with diverse processes including chondrogenesis, wound healing, embryogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis.

Applications

Human TGF-β1 can be used for a variety of applications, including:
  • In vitro differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells towards TH17 cells.
  • In vitro generation of FoxP3+ inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs).
  • Embryonic stem cell differentiation models, for example, for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.
  • In vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal progenitor cells and redifferentiation of expanded chondrocytes.

Detailed product information

Background information

Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) belongs to a family of homologous, disulfide-linked, homodimeric proteins. These highly pleiotropic cytokines inhibit proliferation of most cells, but can promote the growth of mesenchymal cells and enhance extracellular matrix formation. The pivotal function of TGF-β1 in the immune system is to mediate immunosuppression and maintain tolerance by regulating lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In addition, TGF-β1 controls inflammatory responses through chemotactic attraction and activation of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. TGF-β1 is produced by many cell types, but is reported to be most abundant in mammalian platelets and bone. All three TGF-β members are synthesized as an homodimeric precursor of 390 residues, which is intracellularly processed by proteolysis into a 112 aa form. The resulting N-terminal latency-associated peptide (LAP) remains non-covalently associated with the TGF-β dimer, and the complex binds to another protein called Latent TGF-β-Binding Protein (LTBP), forming a larger complex called Large Latent Complex (LLC). The LLC is secreted into the extracellular matrix, and prevents the binding of TGF-b to its specific cell surface receptor. Several extracellular factors such as matrix metalloproteases, low pH, reactive oxigen species and thrombospondin-1 can induce release of the active mature TGF-b dimer from the inactive complex. This sophisticated mechanism of activation is important for a fine-tuning of TGF-β signaling. Human TGF-b1 is a recombinant homodimer corresponding to the fully mature form of TGF-β1 without LAP. The amino acid sequence of human TGF-β1 shares 99% identity with TGF-β1 from mouse and rat, therefore human TGF-b1 is commonly used also for mouse cell culture.

Biological activity

  • Inhibition of IL-5 induced TF-1 cells (NIBSC 89/514)
  • premium grade: ≥ 5×
    10
    6
    U/mg
    (Typical specific activity: ≥ 8×
    10
    6
    U/mg
    )
  • We measure the biological activity of each batch of MACS Premium-Grade Cytokines and state the results in the Certificate of Analysis (CoA). Based on the lot-specific activity, exact doses of active cytokine can be applied to cell culture experiments. This allows for reproducible cell culture conditions without the need for time-consuming lot-to-lot testing.

Quality description

Premium-grade
cytokines offer the convenience of high and well-defined biological activities and allow exact unit dosing for demanding applications. The biological activity is determined after lyophilization and reconstitution, and normalized to WHO/NIBSC standards whenever available. In general, endotoxin levels are <0.01 ng/μg (<0.1 EU/μg), and purities are >97%. Lot-specific activities are stated in the Certificate of Analysis (www.miltenyibiotec.com/certificates).

Resources for Human TGF-β1

Documents and Protocols

Certificates

Please follow this
link
to search for Certificates of Analysis (CoA) by lot number.

References for Human TGF-β1

Publications

  1. Ricciardi, S. et al. (2018) The Translational Machinery of Human CD4 + T Cells Is Poised for Activation and Controls the Switch from Quiescence to Metabolic Remodeling. Cell Metab. 28(6): 895-906
  2. Pfalzgraff, A. et al. (2016) Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration. Sci Rep 6: 31577
  3. Riedel, L. et al. (2018) microRNA-29b mediates fibrotic induction of human xylosyltransferase-I in human dermal fibroblasts via the Sp1 pathway. Sci Rep 8(1): 17779
  4. Leleu, D. et al. (2020) Elevated Circulatory Levels of Microparticles Are Associated to Lung Fibrosis and Vasculopathy During Systemic Sclerosis. Front Immunol 11: 532177
  5. Chiurchiù, V. et al. (2016) Proresolving lipid mediators resolvin D1, resolvin D2, and maresin 1 are critical in modulating T cell responses. Sci Transl Med 8(353): 353ra111
  6. Bosch, J. et al. (2013) Comparing the gene expression profile of stromal cells from human cord blood and bone marrow: lack of the typical "bone" signature in cord blood cells Stem Cells Int. 2013: 631984
  7. Neybecker, P. et al. (2018) In vitro and in vivo potentialities for cartilage repair from human advanced knee osteoarthritis synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells Stem Cell Res Ther. 9(1): 329
  8. Neybecker, P. et al. (2020) Respective stemness and chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human bone marrow, synovial membrane, and synovial fluid Stem Cell Res Ther. 11(1): 316
  9. Ferreras, C. et al. (2019) Chondral Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Without Progression Into the Endochondral Pathway. Front Cell Dev Biol. 7: 270
  10. Randall, L. A. et al. (1993) A novel, sensitive bioassay for transforming growth factor β. J. Immunol. Methods 164: 61-67
  11. Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, F. et al. (2012) NK cell tolerance to TLR agonists mediated by regulatory T cells after polymicrobial sepsis. J. Immunol. 188(12): 5850-5858
  12. Nguyen, T. L. et al. (2011) Antigen-specific TGF-β-induced regulatory T cells secrete chemokines, regulate T cell trafficking, and suppress ongoing autoimmunity. J. Immunol. 187(4): 1745-1753

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